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Chapter 1. 0 Vehicle systems. Note If you are not at all familiar with basic electronics, you might find it easier to understand this chapter if you read chapter 1. There are two or three main objectives for people who create automotive devices increasing the mpg performance and reducing the harmful emissions are the top two priorities, while running the vehicle on water alone is the aim of a few people. The first two objectives are readily achievable, but running a vehicle on water alone is not going to happen for almost everybody. This idea is peddled by con artists who sell worthless plans, claiming that these will run a vehicle on water for anybody who wants to construct these simple devices. This is just not true. I. product guide. Slabs crack directly beneath saw cut contraction joints and transfer load between panels by aggregate interlock. Sawed joints are widely used in industrial slabs for efficient and costeffective crack control. Sawcut joints minimize random cracking that result from drying. Type of Cracking. Form of Crack Primary Cause Time of Appearance Plastic settlement Above and aligned with steel reinforcement Subsidence around rebar. The Australian code, and I guess most others, requires additional reinforcement at reentrant corners, openings, etc to control cracks starting from the corners. Guide to Heat Treating Process automation, redefining how fastener parts are heat treated. View Plan Check Comments The following Plan Check Comments are for. DEDICATED to the AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER who by his military virtues, and by his deeds in battle, has earned for himself a place in history which none can challenge. Re-Entrant Corner Crack' title='Re-Entrant Corner Crack' />Re-Entrant Corner CrackRe-Entrant Corner CrackYou are welcome to download the Hydro. Star and Hydro. Gen plans free from my web site Hydro. Star and Hydro. Gen. However, most experienced people looking at these plans are convinced that they could not possibly produce enough hydrogenoxygen gas mix to run an engine. Image159.gif' alt='Re-Entrant Corner Crack' title='Re-Entrant Corner Crack' />While I have never heard of anyone, anywhere, ever getting an engine to run on these plans, the present day science of water is so inadequate, that I am not in a position to be certain that they could not work, and so I am just highly doubtful about them being viable devices. Just before getting on to explain the construction details of practical systems, let me put the running of an engine on water alone in its proper context. The internal combustion engine which you own has an efficiency less than 5. This means that at least half of the energy available from the fuel which you use is wasted and does not produce any useful mechanical output power. In many cases, that percentage can be as high as 9. The main way of running an engine with water as the only fuel, involves splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen and then burning those gases to power the engine. To be self sustaining, the splitting of the water has to be done by the electrics of the vehicle and that means that the efficiency of the water splitting has to be more than 2. That just doesnt happen with simple systems, so please forget the notion of building some device in your garage with a couple of hours work and waving goodbye to filling stations forever it aint going to happen. Just to set the record straight, it is possible to run a vehicle without using fossil fuel, but the difficulty level of doing that is about the same as building a rocket capable of going into orbit, which is something well beyond the capabilities of most people, including me. This document does tell you how it can be done, but please understand that it calls for exceptional skills, very considerable expenditure and a great deal of patience, so for the time being, please forget about it. What can be done quite readily and at low cost, is to construct a device which will raise the efficiency of your engine. This is done by feeding a hydrogenoxygen gas mix called hydroxy gas into your engine along with the air which is drawn in to make the engine run. A device of this type is called a booster as it boosts the fuel burn, extracting a greater percentage of the fuels available energy. Re-Entrant Corner Crack' title='Re-Entrant Corner Crack' />An important side effect of this improvement in the burn quality of the fuel is the fact that unburnt fuel no longer gets pushed out of the exhaust as harmful emissions. Another effect is that the engine has greater pulling power and runs smoother. Inside your engine, carbon deposits will have built up from previous un boosted running. These deposits get burnt away when you use a booster and that extends the engine life. Some people worry about the fact that burning hydroxy gas produces water and they imagine this water causing rusting inside the engine. Valuejet 1204 Service Manual. What they dont realise is that the ordinary fuel used in the engine is a hydrocarbon which is a compound of hydrogen and carbon and that fuel actually splits up to form hydrogen which the engine burns. It is the carbon part of the hydrocarbon fuel which is the problem, producing Carbon dioxide greenhouse gas, Carbon monoxide, and physical carbon deposits inside the engine. A normal fuel burn produces water anyway, but you dont get rusting inside the engine as the temperature there is so high that any water is in the form of steam or vapour which dry out completely when the engine is switched off. Adding a small amount of hydroxy gas has no adverse effects at all. This document describes different types of booster. Let me stress that each engine is different and it depends on how inefficient the engine is to begin with, what sort of mpg improvement is likely to be produced by a booster. Just to make sure that you understand what is involved, a booster is a simple container which holds a set of plates submerged in water which probably has an additive to make the water conduct electrical current better. A pipe from the top of the container feeds the gas into the air filter of the vehicle, via one or two simple safety devices. Adding this gas causes a major improvement in the quality of the fuel burn inside the engine and cuts harmful emission to near zero. As a consequence of this, it is possible to reduce the amount of fossil fuel being sent to the engine, which is not something which should be done if hydroxy gas is not being added, as the engine is liable to overheat and some valve damage could occur. It is a completely different matter if hydroxy gas is being added. However, all recent engine designs have an Electronic Control Unit ECU which controls the amount of fuel being sent to the engine. The ECU accepts input signals from an oxygen sensor placed in the exhaust stream, and often a second sensor after the catalytic converter to make sure that the catalytic converter has not failed. Unfortunately, the much improved exhaust caused by the better fuel burn caused by the hydroxy gas, causes the ECU to think that the engine fuel air mix must be too low, and so it pumps in more fuel in an effort to compensate. Ideally, this can be dealt with by adding a circuit board which adjusts the signal coming from the oxygen sensor so that it is correct for the improved fuel burn. Details of how to do this are in a companion document. So, to recap, the only practical device which you can build yourself and use to improve automotive performance is a booster. Using a booster improves the efficiency of the fuel burn inside your engine and that results in more power, better torque, smoother running and vastly improved exhaust emissions. If the ECU is not adjusted or its input signal not controlled, the mpg figures may actually get slightly lower due to unwanted excess fuel being pumped into the engine. If a control circuit is used to correct this ECU error, then mpg gains will be produced. So, what mpg gains can be expected The worst I have ever heard of was 8 which is very rare. The lowest likely gain is 2. Typical gains are in the 2. Not particularly unusual is 3. A realistic expectation would be a 3. This chapter is divided up into the following sections. Simple DC boosters, using a 1. Advanced DC boosters using much higher DC voltages. Water splitters which use pulsed electrical signals to change water into hydroxy gas. Running engines without fossil fuels. Other useful devices. One thing which needs to be understood. Caution A booster is not a toy. If you make and use one of these, you do so entirely at your own risk. Comflor composite floor deck brochure by Tata Steel. Comflor composite floor deck brochure   Published on Sep 7, 2. This brochure by Tata Steel details the available Com. Flor range of floor deck solutions including technical specifications such as load span.